Rekayasa Sipil <p><strong>E-ISSN : 2502-6348</strong> |   <strong>P-ISSN : 1978-5658 |  DOI prefix : 10.21776/ub.rekayasasipil</strong></p><p>Welcome to  <strong>Rekayasa Sipil</strong>.</p><p><strong>Rekayasa Sipil</strong> is an open-access peer reviewed journal that mediate the result of study, research and development of science and technology in Civil Engineering with scope Construction Management, Structural, Transportation, Water Resources and Geotechnical Engineering.</p><p>The author may write an article in accordance to <strong>template of Rekayasa Sipil</strong> and submit the article online by using OJS system. We accept article in Bahasa or in English.</p><p>Rekayasa Sipil is published 3 times in a year : February, June and October</p><p>Since September, 2017 we are a proud member of <strong>CROSSREF</strong>. <strong>Rekayasa Sipil</strong> <strong>DOI</strong> <strong>prefix</strong> is <strong>10.21776</strong>. Therefore, all articles published by <strong>Rekayasa Sipil  </strong>will have unique<strong> DOI number.</strong></p><p><strong>Rekayasa Sipil  </strong>has been indexed in <strong>Directory Open Access Journal (DOAJ, GOOGLE SCHOLAR, IPI, SINTA,</strong> <strong>ONESEARCH</strong>) and nationally <strong>accredited</strong> <strong>(S3)</strong> by the Ministry of Research, Technology, and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia (Decree No. <strong><a href="">30/E/KPT/2019 on November <strong>11th,</strong> 2019</a>) (click the decree number to download)</strong></p><p> </p><p> </p> Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Brawijaya en-US Rekayasa Sipil 1978-5658 <a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a><br /><span>This journal is licensed under a </span><a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a> CRACKING STUDY OF ONYX WASTE PRECAST CONCRETE PANEL WHICH THE SURFACE IS FINISHED WITH 4MM THICKNESS GRINDING This research is a continuation of a series of research on Tulungagung onyx waste. The large volume of onyx waste in the area around the Tulungagung onyx processing plant is used as a substitute for gravel aggregate in the concrete mixture which is processed into exposed concrete which has high aesthetic value.<em> </em>In this study, a finishing treatment process (panel thickness thinning) was carried out which aims to produce coarse aggregates from the walls of the onyx concrete waste panels as exposed concrete which has high aesthetic value. The researcher wanted to know the cracking behavior of the onyx concrete waste panel walls before and after the finishing process. The test object used is the test object of previous researchers, namely the wall of the onyx waste concrete panel size 80 cm x 40 cm x 6 cm with practical steel reinforcement Ø6 - 100 mm attached, so that in this study the researcher only carried out the finishing treatment of panel thickness thinning, in-plane three-point loading test and took data on the cracks that occurred. The result of the finishing process by grinding of 2 mm shows that the percentage of aggregate is seen on average 1.8% of the total surface area, while for the finishing of 4 mm it shows that the percentage of aggregate is seen on average 35%. No initial cracks were found on the surface of the specimen after grinding 2 mm or 4 mm. The cracks experienced after loading were flexural cracks, where all the samples had only one crack in the direction almost perpendicular to the panel axis<em>. </em>The bending stress that occurs in the panels during the initial cracking of the non-grinding panels, 2 mm grinding panels, 4 mm grinding panels is 4.75 MPa, 4.62 MPa, 4.60 MPa respectively. Danang Hadi Nugroho Edhi Wahyuni Setyowati Wisnumurti Wisnumurti Copyright (c) 2021 Rekayasa Sipil 2022-06-27 2022-06-27 15 3 157 166 Comparative Study of Disaster Regulations in Analyzing Vulnerability Level of Elementary School Building Structures in Yogyakarta <p class="Abtrak">This research was conducted to compare several regulations that evaluate the level of vulnerability of school buildings in Yogyakarta. The regulations used in this study are a guide to assessing and repairing damage to public housing buildings due to the earthquake according to the Department of Public Works in 2000, technical guidelines for safe school rehabilitation according to the National Disaster Management Agency in 2011, a broken one or two-story simple building block safety check guide due to the earthquake according to the 2009 World Seismic Safety Initiative and using rapid visual screening of building for potential seismic hazards according to the Federal Emergency Management Agency No. 154 of 2002. The 25 schools selected in this study were located in areas prone to earthquakes, volcanoes erupted and prone to landslides. Through this research, the results of the appropriate regulations were obtained to evaluate the rapid level of vulnerability of buildings to disasters and evaluation of certain disaster cases was needed because the regulations did not accommodate all types of disasters.</p> Lilis Tiyani Hakas Prayuda Bagus Soebandono Copyright (c) 2021 Rekayasa Sipil 2022-06-27 2022-06-27 15 3 167 174 PERUBAHAN LAHAN KRITIS MENJADI LAHAN HIJAU SEBAGAI SUMBER ENERGI (STUDI KASUS DAS ARAU KOTA PADANG) <pre>This study examines a flood control model by analyzing the area of critical land which is the land that causes flooding to become green land. Indonesia is a country that has 2 seasons, namely the dry season and the rainy season. Padang City, from 2008 - 2020, there were frequent floods. From research on the Arau watershed, there are 8 Arau sub-watersheds experiencing flooding. To reduce flooding, critical land use is converted into green land. Rainfall calculations use rainfall data from 5 stations. Rainfall plans using the Thiessen theory. Discharge plan using a rational formula. From the water discharge will be determined the amount of energy. The energy produced by the discharge of critical land use is 168,960 kwh.</pre> Lusi Utama Zuherna Mizwar Eko Prayitno Copyright (c) 2021 Rekayasa Sipil 2022-06-27 2022-06-27 15 3 175 184 Evaluation of Natural Lighting System of Lecture Building <p class="Judul">Visual comfort is one of the most important things that building need. A building with a proper passive design obtains fulfill the users visual comfort through natural lighting  on the other hand, a passive design that is less precise always requires energy to achieve the users visual comfort. Lecture building is one of the buildings that is effectively used 8 hours a day and 5 days on a week. The high operating hours cause visual comfort in the building becomes very important. The purpose of this study is to determine the performance of the building passive design in terms of lighting to comprehend various visual problems in the building. The method used in this research is quantitative comparative by comparing the value of  building lighting. Through the results of field measurements, building modeling simulations with Ecotect software, and SNI 03-6197-2000 parameter  several problems were found in the building's natural lighting system such as inadequacy of lighting on the facade with a southwest orientation, enormous lighting on the facade with a northeast orientation, uneven lighting causing various visual discomforts.</p> Ariska Desy Haryani Yatnanta Padma Devia Eva Arifi Copyright (c) 2021 Rekayasa Sipil 2022-06-27 2022-06-27 15 3 185 191 THE EFFECT OF THE USE PREFABRICATED VERTICAL DRAIN (PVD) ON SOFT SOIL CONSTRUCTION OF BANDUNG CITY ROAD WITH FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS <p align="center">Soft soil has more water and air content than solid soil particles, so it has a large settlement and soil consolidation lasts longer. Soil improvement will be able to minimize the settlement and consolidation process by adding preloading PVD combination. The effect of PVD installation and preloading is analyzed using Finite element analysis. An equivalence between plane strain and axisymmetric is made to obtain a 2D finite element analysis that is closer to field conditions. The equivalent equation between axisymmetric to plane strain has been proposed by the Indraratna Method. This study aims to determine the stress-strain behavior, pore water pressure, and stability in the use of PVD as well as the effects of smear zone. The result of the analysis is the greater the permeability value of the disturbed smear zone, the smaller the degree of total consolidation that occurs. The degree of total consolidation is proportional to the magnitude of the settlement that occurs over a certain period of time. Therefore, if the settlement is greater, the value of the degree of total consolidation will follow.</p> Mariyana Mariyana Yulvi Zaika Harimurti Harimurti Copyright (c) 2021 Rekayasa Sipil 2022-06-27 2022-06-27 15 3 192 198 ROCK SLOPE STABILITY OF PONOROGO - PACITAN ROAD KM 232.5 USING ROCK MASS RATING (RMR) AND ROCPLANE SOFTWARE Geological structures and discontinuities in the rock are weak areas and groundwater infiltration pathways. The existence of geological structures and discontinuities will reduce the level of rock shear strength and the main implication is to increase the chance of landslides. The purpose of this study was to determine the type of sliding on rock slopes, rock mass classification, and to determine the stability of the rock slopes. Kinematic analysis obtained landslide type, rock mass classification analysis including medium rock mass class with an RMR value of 53. Slope stability analysis based on the generalized criteria Hoek &amp; Brown failure obtained a safety factor value of 1.55 with a slope angle of 60°. Slope stability analysis based on Mohr-Coulomb criteria obtained a safety factor value of 1.59 with a slope angle of 70°. Hasyim Alhadar Arief Rachmansyah Eko Andi Suryo Copyright (c) 2021 Rekayasa Sipil 2022-06-27 2022-06-27 15 3 199 207 ANALISIS KEKUATAN STRUKTUR BALOK PASCA KEBAKARAN PADA GEDUNG DENGAN PENAMBAHAN PELAT BAJA SEBAGAI PERKUATAN Fire occurring in the building can cause fatal effects to the strength of building. Therefore, this research aimed at investigating the structural strength and capacity pre-fire, the remaining strength and capacity post-fire, and the structural strength and capacity after adding steel plate reinforcement. The field data involved the building of Tamansari Emerald Surabaya Apartment. The nominal moment of beam was controlled pre-fire and post-fire. The results of research demonstrated that the beam encountering fire would have moment capacity reduction at 300°C, 600°C, and 800°C by consecutively 0,0677%, 2,7569%, and 33,98% of the moment capacity in the normal condition. Furthermore, the reinforcement applied steel plate having the dimension 150×5 mm. Thus, the increasing moment capacity after adding reinforcement gained around 60 – 380 Kn.m. Heri Istiono Mochamad Anang Syafruddin Copyright (c) 2021 Rekayasa Sipil 2022-06-27 2022-06-27 15 3 208 213 Optimasi Desain Penampang Struktur Rangka Batang Baja Berbasis Reliabilitas Menggunakan Symbiotic Organisms Search dan Artificial Neural Network <em>Safety and economic factors are the two main consideration in designing a structure. The structural engineer always try to find the optimal structure design with minimum cost that satisfy the safety requirement. This safety requirement can be expressed as structural reliability that associated to a certain failure probability threshold. An integrated Reliability-based Design Optimization (RBDO) framework usually employed to minimize the cost objective function subjected to the failure probability limit. Failure probability mostly computed by using a time-consuming Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) method. This study develops two hybrid RBDO framework, SOS-ANN and PSO-ANN, which combine the metaheuristic method, Symbiotic Organisms Search (SOS) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) with a machine learning method, Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The SOS and PSO method are used to solve the discrete optimization problem. The ANN method is adopted to replace the MCS method in predicting the reliability of every solution using binary classification. A practical RBDO case of steel truss structure is used to demonstrate the performance of both SOS-ANN and PSO-ANN method in finding the optimal structural design. The results show that the SOS-ANN method outperforms the PSO-ANN method in terms of solution quality, computational efficiency and consistency.</em> Willy Husada Doddy Prayogo Christoffel Felio Thamrin Ronald Herdjijono Copyright (c) 2021 Rekayasa Sipil 2022-06-27 2022-06-27 15 3 214 221 Studi Pengaruh Limbah Plastik Sebagai Subtitusi Agregat Halus Terhadap Kuat Tekan Mortar <p><em>This century waste has become a serious problem faced by every country in the world, the increasing need for plastic contributes to the high level of plastic waste. Facing the problem, the utilization of plastic waste for construction needs is considered to be a solution that gives positive and profitable results. This research aims to utilize plastic waste into fine aggregates based on plastic waste. Substitution of the amount of fine aggregate with plastic waste in the divide into 2 ie 10% and 20% substitution of waste will then be compared with normal mortar as a strong control press mortar. Plastic Waste as a solution of fine aggregate substitution for concrete is able to increase the value of strong press up to 15.78% with waste substitution of 10%, then the higher the amount of substitution makes the strong ability of press is also reduced, substitution of fine aggregate with plastic waste does not eliminate the ability of mortar as construction material.</em></p> Masdiana Masdiana Muhammad Syarif Prasetia Sulha Sulha B. Mursidi S. Machmud A.B. Lewikinta Copyright (c) 2021 Rekayasa Sipil 2022-06-27 2022-06-27 15 3 222 227 PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN SERBUK SENG (ZNO POWDER) TERHADAP BERAT, KUAT TEKAN DAN KUAT TARIK BELAH BETON <p><em>Indonesia is a developing country that has quite advanced industrial prospects, one of which is the zinc industry. Increased zinc production, will also increase zinc waste. Based on the nature of ZnO which readily reacts with other compounds, this compound can be used as a mixture in making concrete so that it can produce quite good structural strength. This study aims to determine how the effect of using zinc powder on weight, compressive strength and split tensile strength of concrete. The variations in the addition of zinc powder consisted of 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75% and 1% by weight of the cement used. The test object used is a cylinder with a size of 15 cm x 30 cm. Tests for weight, compressive strength and split tensile strength were carried out when the concrete was 28 days old. The results obtained are for the weight of concrete with variations in the addition of zinc powder as much as 0%, 0.25%, 0.75% and 1% respectively of 2294 Kg / m3, 2305 Kg / m3, 2311 Kg / m3, 2305 Kg / m3, 2323 Kg / m3. Meanwhile, the compressive strength is 30.49 MPa, 30.356 MPa, 32.92 MPa, 32.69 MPa and 31.573 MPa. And for the tensile strength of concrete with the same variations, namely 11.306 MPa, 10.597 MPa, 11.976 MPa, 13.07 MPa and 13.426 MPa.</em></p> Maulana Ibrahim Eka Juliafad Copyright (c) 2021 Rekayasa Sipil 2022-06-27 2022-06-27 15 3 228 234